copper and less silver
The developed system of book antiques trade, with the relevant rules and laws, is one of the most important components in creating the most favorable conditions for the emergence of a collection of antique printed and manuscript books. In book antiques, as, perhaps, in no other area of antique collecting, a competent intermediary specialist is needed between the collector and the owner of the subject of his interest.
Antique collectors in Europe were engaged in the sale of ancient books in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The first catalogs of old books that were sold at fairs in Leipzig and Frankfurt were published in Germany in 1564. This date is considered the beginning of the professional trade in book antiques.
Until the 18th century, antique books were sold among other antiques. Only at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries, the trade in ancient books became a separate type of antique trade. The largest centers for the sale of antique books in these centuries were Paris, London, Munich, Milan, Amsterdam. Continue reading
Gold and silver are usually called the artistic processing of precious metals. Since ancient times, gold and silver have been used to create a variety of objects, not only because they are beautiful and durable, but also because these metals are relatively easy to process using a variety of techniques and can additionally be decorated with precious stones, colored enamel, etc. . The materials themselves indicate that the works of them were intended mainly for the elect: the tsar’s circle, church nobility, the decoration and life of palaces and monasteries.
By appointment, items made of precious metals are divided into precious utensils and jewelry. For the manufacture of products using gold, silver, platinum, as well as alloys. Continue reading