JEWELRY ART ART DECO
The Art Deco style first made itself known in the early 1920s in France, then spread to the United States and most European countries. After the First World War, a significant shift in priorities occurred in society, the pace of life accelerated, and, following the requirements of the time, women were forced to learn how to do men’s work. When you imagine a woman of the 30s, the imagination draws a short-cut lady, shrouded in
a cloud of cigarette smoke, which, along with men, knows how to drive a car, but at the same time does not refuse exquisite jewelry and outfits. They only became different – the complexity and floridity of the Art Nouveau style disappeared, and simplicity and practicality came to the fore.
In the art of jewelry, clear geometric shapes began to prevail, matching the style of modern clothing. Georges Fouquet, one of the most famous jewelers of Paris at that time, who later became a pioneer of a new direction, in his article “Contemporary Jewelery and Fine Jewelery” published in the Figaro magazine for June 1929, explained the reasons for the birth of Artdeco style in this way: “ Today’s life is characterized by speed. The composition of jewelry should be understood instantly, it should be built from simple lines, free from affectation and surface details. ”
After the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts and Industry in Paris in 1925, it became clear that the new style gained extreme popularity in society, and began, in addition to several European countries, to actively conquer America. But still, Paris became the center of Artdeco’s birth. Here were the best jewelry houses, such as Cartier, Mellerio, Fouquet, Leklush, Fontana, “Linseler and Marshak”, Van Clif and Arpellier, Chaume, Tiffany, Templie and others. Many of them remain leaders in the jewelry market now.
In their products, the masters moved away from the delicate and delicate decorative floristry of Art Nouveau, focusing on geometric color spots. Color in itself has become a self-contained decorative element. Of various combinations of semiprecious stones – topazes, aquamarines, rock crystal, amber or turquoise, whole planes were sometimes created. And the combination of mother of pearl, coral, onyx and Chinese jade formed into bizarre oriental motifs, which at that time was very fashionable. Even if stylized flower-fruit compositions were visible in combinations of stones and other materials, they still had clear geometric lines.
Art deco jewelers combined seemingly incompatible materials – transparent stones with opaque ones, or used precious, semiprecious and ornamental stones in one piece of jewelry. Style required bold decisions and unconventional approaches. Georges Fouquet in brooches simultaneously used aquamarines and topazes, diamonds and enamel. And his son and continuer of the dynasty, Jean Fouquet, created a series of jewelry, even remotely not similar to what was done before. His ivory brooches, adorned with black onyx and white gold mugs, are now kept in collections in Paris and New York.
In the products of another famous jeweler, Raymond Templie, a clear constructivism is felt. He trimmed the strict geometric elements of his products with bright enamel or varnish, which created unusual color effects.
Artdeco’s multicolor was intense, striking, bright, sometimes even rude. Precious and semiprecious stones were processed differently – in the form of baguettes, trapezoids, barrels, squares or irregularly shaped cabochons. All these types of cuts can often be seen in one product at a time. Such combinations created unique color and lighting effects.
The most actively used three materials – rock crystal, varnish and enamel. The varnished rhinestone acquired a velvety surface and looked good in combination with gold and colored stones, or served as a backdrop for diamonds.
Long pearl necklaces came into fashion. They wrapped themselves around the neck several times or hung from behind, decorating the neckline of an evening gown. Pearls were combined with black crystal, turquoise, onyx, coral, often stringing stones together.
One of the most popular jewelry was pendants. They could, like brooches, adorn the lapel or lapel, or attached at the end of a long necklace. Like all other jewelry of that time, pendants had a strictly geometric shape, or were made in the form of stylized motifs, such as a vase with a bouquet.
The Fuke house has a very peculiar geometric solution – gold or platinum discs, coated with engraved circles of stripes, on which large colored stones were fixed – aquamarine, topaz or citrine. Such elements were very reminiscent of machine parts, which caused extremely negative responses in the traditional press. The print media reminded the masters that a woman should remain a woman and not wear screws and nuts.