Pictures steal: what is valued in the black antiques market
STEALING PICTURES TREYAKOVSKY GALLERY Experts call the unfortunate misunderstanding what happened in the Tretyakov Gallery. The alleged kidnapper was able to calculate in hot pursuit. The picture was found. Nevertheless,…

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POCKET WATCHES WACHERON & CONSTANTIN VACHERON & CONSTANTIN
The Swiss watch Vasheron & Constantine is considered one of the most expensive and prestigious in the world. In the second half of the 18th century, Switzerland, from a country…

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WATCH COLLECTION WITH A LIMITED BUDGET
Most collectors are always looking for the sleeping one who is waiting to be found. One story tells how a collector went to a pawnshop and asked the owner if…

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FAMOUS AMERICAN RAILWAY POCKET WATCHES

It was the end of the nineteenth century in America. The car has not yet been invented. The Kodak camera has not yet been launched on the market. Women wore long dresses, and the main way to wash clothes was a washboard. Few houses had electricity, and even the radio had not yet entered their lives. The president was Benjamin Harrison. Of course, those days of the past were not quite as simple as most memories. They were slower, yes, because getting from one place to another took a lot of time. American mail was the main form of communication connecting this country, as America was slowly moving towards the twentieth century.

Of great importance in that era was the railway. Puffing black giant locomotives that spewed steam and fire, moving up and down the countryside, were huge successes from the 1830s. In fact, trains brought a lot of new life and hope to people across the country, delivering goods and food, transporting people from one city to another, delivering mail, and providing democratic processes, allowing presidential candidates to meet and talk with people in every state. Indeed, each station has memories and has a connection with each family.

Opening on June 15, 1892, the Illinois Central Railroad began the examination of watches. Employees were now required to check their watches for a quarterly examination and weekly standard time comparisons with the various local inspectors who were appointed for this purpose. The minimum standard of excellent quality adopted by this company for watches should have included: a mechanism with 15 stones, a patented regulator adapted to temperature changes, time differences should not exceed 30 seconds per week.

The famous American rail pocket watch is unsurpassed in quality and reliability. “What kind of watch is this?” There is no easy answer to this question. Then America numbered from 500 to 1000 railways and each used many different rules and specifications. Some railways used only part of the requirements listed above. The rules of the railway itself and the clock evolved and changed from year to year. In the late 1860s, the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. was patented and branded “Pennsylvania Railroad Co.” on the plates and “B.W. Raymond” on the gear. The mechanism made by Elgin was 18 caliber, with 15 stones, with a winding key and a lever for setting the time. In 1887, American railroad companies had a meeting to determine standard time requirements and watch inspection. In the spring of 1894, and over the past few years, the provisions of American Waltham Watch Co “Systematic Inspection of Railroad Watches” were first adopted. The provision read “… a Waltham watch mechanism specifically designed for use by the railway …”. The provision provided for 1892 types of watches with 17 stones and a double roller. In February 1894, “United States Watch Co. Waltham ”made a watch and added the position“ Engineers and conductors of the railway: The President’s watch is a high-quality nickel, 18-gauge plate, with a crown and a lever for setting the time, adapted to different temperatures, isochronism and accuracy in any position. The company guarantees that the mechanism will have discrepancies of less than six seconds per month. ”

Until 1893, the requirements for railway hours were individual for each railway. Around 1893, the General Commission of Railways introduced new guidelines. American watch manufacturers have been looking forward to these guides. Some companies were vague in their instructions, and some did not have them at all.

Watches of 18 or 16 caliber, had at least 17 stones, adapted to at least five positions, kept accuracy within 30 seconds per week. The watch was adapted to a temperature of 34 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, had a double head, a steel plate, a time adjustment dial, a micrometer dial, the watch mark on the back plate was written in simple Arabic numbers printed in black on white discs.

The American watch industry was forced to produce only such a tool that met these requirements. The watch for the railway was a phenomenal timepiece and long in life and maintenance. Making a pocket watch was a lot more difficult than making a regular watch, because regular watches were always in the same position and always under constant force, while pocket watches had to be more accurate when in multiple positions. After 1875-80, employees were required to buy their own watches.

After 1893, pocket watch standards were adopted by some companies for new watches. While each company had its own individual standards directive, many included basic commission recommendations.

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